segunda-feira, 15 de novembro de 2010

Afixes - Sufixes and Prefixes

A suffix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the end of a word to form a new word or to alter the grammatical function of the original word. For example, the verb read can be made into the noun reader by adding the suffix -er; read can be made into the adjective readable by adding the suffix -able.

Noun Suffixes
Suffix Meaning Example
-acy state or quality privacy
-al act or process of refusal
-ance, -ence state or quality of maintenance, eminence
-dom place or state of being freedom, kingdom
-er, -or one who trainer, protector
-ism doctrine, belief communism
-ist one who chemist
-ity, -ty quality of veracity
-ment condition of argument
-ness state of being heaviness
-ship position held fellowship
-sion, -tion state of being concession, transition

Verb Suffixes
-ate become eradicate
-en become enlighten
-ify, -fy make or become terrify
-ize, -ise become civilize

Adjective Suffixes
-able, -ible capable of being edible, presentable
-al pertaining to regional
-esque reminiscent of picturesque
-ful notable for fanciful
-ic, -ical pertaining to musical, mythic
-ious, -ous characterized by nutritious, portentous
-ish having the quality of fiendish
-ive having the nature of creative
-less without endless
-y characterized by sleazy
15/11/2010, 09:09

A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning.

a-also an-not, withoutatheist, anaemic
a-to, towardsaside, aback
in the process of, in a particular statea-hunting, aglow
ab-also abs-away, fromabdicate, abstract
ad-also a-, ac-, af-, ag- al-, an-, ap-, at- as-, at-movement to, change into, addition or increaseadvance, adulterate, adjunct, ascend, affiliate, affirm, aggravate, alleviate, annotate, apprehend, arrive, assemble, attend
ante-before, precedingantecedent, ante-room
anti-also ant-opposing, against, the oppositeanti-aircraft, antibiotic, anticlimax, Antarctic
be-all over, all aroundbespatter, beset
completelybewitch, bemuse
having, covered withbejewelled
affect with (added to nouns)befog
cause to be (added to adjectives)becalm
com-also co-, col-, con-, cor-with, jointly, completelycombat, codriver, collude, confide, corrode
contra-against, oppositecontraceptive
counter-opposition, opposite directioncounter-attack, counteract
de-down, awaydescend, despair, depend, deduct
completelydenude, denigrate
removal, reversalde-ice, decamp
dia-also di-through, acrossdiagonal
dis-also di-negation, removal, expulsiondisadvantage, dismount, disbud, disbar
en-also em-put into or onengulf, enmesh
bring into the condition ofenlighten, embitter
intensificationentangle, enrage
ex-also e-, ef-outexit, exclude, expand
upwardexalt, extol
completelyexcruciate, exasperate
extra-outside, beyondextracurricular
hyper-beyond, more than, more than normalhypersonic, hyperactive
hypo-underhypodermic, hypothermia
in-also il-, im-not, withoutinfertile, inappropriate, impossible
also il-, im-, ir-in, into, towards, insideinfluence, influx, imbibe
infra-belowinfrared, infrastructure
inter-between, amonginteract, interchange
intra-inside, withinintramural, intravenous
non-absence, negationnon-smoker, non-alcoholic
ob-also oc-, of-, op-blocking, against, concealingobstruct, occult, offend, oppose
out-surpassing, exceedingoutperform
external, away fromoutbuilding, outboard
over-excessively, completelyoverconfident, overburdened, overjoyed
upper, outer, over, aboveovercoat, overcast
peri-round, aboutperimeter
post-after in time or orderpostpone
pre-before in time, place, order or importancepre-adolescent, prelude, precondition
pro-favouring, in support ofpro-African
acting forproconsul
motion forwards or awaypropulsion
before in time, place or orderprologue
re-againrepaint, reappraise, reawake
semi-half, partlysemicircle, semi-conscious
sub-also suc-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sur-, sus-at a lower positionsubmarine, subsoil
lower in ranksub-lieutenant
nearly, approximatelysub-tropical
syn-also sym-in union, acting togethersynchronize, symmetry
trans-across, beyondtransnational, transatlantic
into a different statetranslate
ultra-beyondultraviolet, ultrasonic
un-notunacceptable, unreal, unhappy, unmanned
reversal or cancellation of action or stateunplug, unmask
under-beneath, belowunderarm, undercarriage
lower in rankundersecretary
not enoughunderdeveloped

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